ETKİ LİMAN İŞLETMELERİ DOĞALGAZ İTHALAT VE TİCARET A.Ş.

ETKİ LNG FSRU TERMINAL

Natural gas, an alternative energy source to meet the growing energy demand due to population growth and industrialization, began to be used in the 1970s in order to find a solution for increasingly intense air pollution in cities. Due to the advantages that it has in parallel with the increase in energy demand, natural gas, with the growing consumption rate and the usage areas, was first imported to the country in 1987.

When the volume of natural gas is liquefied at -163 °C by way of cooling, it is reduced by about 600 times and can be stored in liquid state. Thus, natural gas becomes more convenient for maritime transportation utilizing vessels to long distances and overseas countries to which the transportation via pipelines are not technically and economically feasible. The first of the international LNG cargo exports were made to England from Algeria in 1965. While the number of countries producing LNG and exporting overseas was only 8 in 1996, this number is more than 25 nowadays.

Especially in the winter period, peak natural gas consumption reaches to a level of 250 million m³/day in the country, and it is predicted that the demand will increase more in the future due to the growth of the economy.

Our country, which ranks 8th among LNG importing countries, has to import additional LNG to meet the natural gas demand which seems to increase more in the next 10 years. Establishment of the physical infrastructure required for LNG importation is of vital importance in terms of natural gas supply flexibility and supply security.

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is an efficient fuel with a low pollution rate and high calorific value compared to the natural gas which is transported by pipelines because the oxygen, carbon dioxide, sulfur components and water are eliminated during processing. LNG can be used easily in all facilities meeting their energy needs with alternative fuels and have high fuel consumption.

The establishment of natural gas supply-demand balance in our country on a seasonal, daily or even hourly basis necessitates the presence of LNG Terminals which can function as a buffer especially during peak consumption days and hours. Only Spain currently has 7 LNG terminals.

A significant part of the national natural gas consumption takes place in the Marmara Region, where large consumption centers such as Istanbul, Izmit and Bursa are located. The Aegean Region is in the second place in natural gas consumption. In order to deliver the natural gas supplied from the eastern borders to this region, it has to be transported through pipelines and compressor stations for about 1,500 km. When the distance increases in natural gas transmission, the investment and transportation costs and operational losses are also increasing. For this reason, it is of utmost importance to establish new entry points close to the consumption centers so that an economic operation can be carried out in natural gas transmission.